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Group of Seven A.Y. Jackson “Caribou Country” Muskeg, Lockhart River, N.W.T. 1957


ARTIST: A.Y. JACKSON, R.C.A. O.S.A., CGP, (1882-1974)


Fully Signed: A.Y.Jackson

Exhibited: The Collectors Gallery of Art Edmonton Alberta 2014

Provenance: Purchased in 1957 directly from A.Y.Jackson, Purchased by Kaspar Gallery Ltd. directly from the Grandson of the original owner in 2014. Kaspar Gallery consigned painting to Old Master Gallery which sold  in October 2014 to a private estate.

Technique: Oil on Canvas

Size: 25″ x 33

Sketch of this Painting was sold through Heffels Auction

Lockhart River is located in the Northwest Territories, southwest of Artillery Lake, northeast of Great Slave Lake. This landscape depicting the migrating caribou that many would go out and hunt, they would have encampments nearby for fishing in the River and Hunting while afterwards they would dry the meat and fish on racks . The caribou were the lifeblood of the northern First Nations; these ungulates migrated into the Barren Lands for the summer and then retreated down into the forests south of the treeline for the winter. A.Y. Jackson made trips to the Great Slave area in 1928, 1949 and 1957. This canvas is an outstanding example of his portrayals of this vast and untamed land and, in this case, how people survived in it using their hunting and fishing skills. Jackson’s niece Naomi Groves wrote about the importance of the North to Canada as a whole, stating, “The mystique of the North somehow survives as a basic underlay, a sort of personality permafrost.” Once he saw it, the North magnetically drew Jackson, who stated, “I guess I’m like a compass, always heading north. I really do belong to the caribou country, not to the cow country.”

In 1964 when an opportunity to return presented itself, Jackson jumped at the chance. Here was a landscape as colour laid bare, a place where he could turn his attention fully to the patterns and rhythms of autumn.

In our painting, with the distant mountains of pinkish-red , and the sky is rippled with waves of cloud. The muskeg itself churns with the movement of snake~like plants, painted with Jackson’s characteristic brushwork; everything is a riot of October colour.










1882 – 1974


Born in Montreal, A.Y. Jackson began his formal art studies around 1898 at Montreal’s Monument National under Edmond Dyonnet, then at the Art Association of Montreal under William Brymner. In 1905, he took his first trip to Europe, then in 1906 went to the United States to take classes at the Chicago Art Institute. After his return to Montreal in 1907, he sailed for France to study in Paris under Jean Paul Laurens at the Académie Julian where he was influenced by Impressionism. Subsequent to his studies he traveled and painted in England, France and Italy, returning to Montreal in 1909. In 1911 he was in France again, with trips to England, Italy and Hungry, returning to Canada in 1913. 

In May of 1913, Jackson went to Toronto, meeting future Group of Seven members J.E.H. MacDonald and Arthur Lismer at the Arts and Letters Club, and later, Lawren Harris. He took his first trip to Georgian Bay in this year, meeting patron Dr. James MacCallum, who offered him a stay at his Go Home Bay cottage and a year’s financial support if he took studio space in the now-famous Studio Building in Toronto. In 1914, he moved in, initially sharing his studio with Tom Thomson. Jackson began taking part in sketching trips with the artists who would become the Group of Seven, such as to Algonquin Park in 1914 with Frederick Varley and Lismer.

After seeing action in World War I in 1915, Jackson was appointed a war artist in 1917, and worked for the Canadian War Memorials until his discharge in 1919. In the autumn of that year he participated in the first Group boxcar trip to Algoma. A founding member of the Group, he exhibited with them throughout the 1920s and into the early 1930s. He was a founding member of the Canadian Group of Painters, formed in 1933. 

An intrepid traveler, Jackson developed long cycles of sketching trips to favourite painting places, and crossed the country from the Maritimes to British Columbia, and north to the Arctic and the Northwest Territories. During the 1920s he made almost yearly late winter / early spring trips to the north and south shores of the St. Lawrence, painting villages and rural scenes. Over the years his various Quebec sketching locations are too numerous to list. His first trip to Georgian Bay was in 1913, and he regularly visited there throughout his life. In 1926, he traveled to British Columbia to the Skeena River region in British Columbia with ethnologist Marius Barbeau and artist Edwin Holgate, in 1945 to the Interior and Cariboo regions, and in 1954 to Victoria and the Cariboo. The Arctic via the SS Beothic was his destination in 1927 and 1930. His last Arctic trip was in 1965 with McGill University’s Alpine Club. Although he had visited Alberta previously, his sketching trips there commenced in 1937, sometimes extending into the Rocky Mountains. He made many trips north: in 1938, 1949, 1950, 1951 and 1959 to Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories, Great Slave Lake and the Barren Lands in 1957 and 1959, and the Yukon in 1964. In 1955, Lake Superior became another regular destination when Jackson bought property with friends at Twidale Bay near Wawa in 1955 and built a cabin. Also in 1955, a milestone was reached when Jackson left his long-time base in the Studio Building in Toronto for Manotick, south of Ottawa, where he built his own studio; thus the Ottawa-Gatineau region became his new primary painting place. Jackson’s great affection for the Canadian landscape that he traveled so extensively, and his perception of the warmth, independence and hardiness of those who inhabited it has informed our sense of nationality.

In 1948, federal Deputy Minister of Mines and Resources and Commissioner of the NWT, Dr. Hugh Keenleyside, invited A.Y. Jackson to visit the Northwest Territories and paint in Yellowknife and the surrounding area. Jackson readily agreed, and
in September 1949, the Eldorado mining company sponsored Jackson’s trip north. Eldorado invited Jackson back in August of 1950, and again in 1952 to paint on the barrenlands north of Port Radium. 

Jackson wrote about his experiences in the Northwest Territories in his 1959 autobiography, A Painter’s Country, and in the journals he kept during his travels. He spent two weeks at Port Radium,
at the east end of Great Bear Lake, in August 1949 and visited Yellowknife on his way back south. In a 

letter dated September 30, 1949, from the Ingraham Hotel in Yellowknife, Jackson told Dr. Keenleyside how much he enjoyed sketching Yellowknife’s Giant, Negus and Con mines. He was impressed by the optimistic character of the “mining men” and by the local interest in arts and handicrafts, which still thrive across the Northwest Territories today. A modest, unassuming man, Jackson developed close ties with the community, particularly in Port Radium where he offered art lessons and regularly visited the school. 



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